<< Back

Blog

6th Parliament: Turnover, Youth & Gender

Becoming an MP can be a complex and difficult journey. In many respects, the job is viewed as one which requires experience and therefore suited to older people. Meanwhile, women face all sorts of hurdles when running for elected office. This includes discrimination, patriarchy, violence and the ever present glass ceiling. According to the 2018 Statistics South Africa's (Stats SA) mid-year population estimate report, more than half of the population (51%) is female and young people between the ages of 15 to 34 years old constitute 35.7% of the total population. Given these statistics, it is worth reflecting on the age and gender composition of Parliament (the National Assembly specifically) to see how this is reflected in this body.

Looking at the sixth Parliament, the data shows that it is still male dominated and disproportionately older. However, a comparison with previous and other parliaments show that progress is being made in both areas.

*Numerically, the following parties have the highest amount of young MPs: DA (20), ANC (14) and EFF (6).

In terms of proportionality, the top ranked parties are: FF+ (30%), IFP (28.6%) and DA (23.8%).

At the start of the Fourth Parliament, the National Assembly table staff reported 68% new MPs. The turnover for the start of the Fifth Parliament was better with around 60% new MPs. The number of newcomers also decreased at the start of the Sixth Parliament with 58% being freshmen lawmakers.

na nalysis

*This data is based on data as of 7 June 2019


Provincial Legislatures: Age and Gender Breakdown

While all the attention is focused on the national legislature, it is easy to overlook the state of gender and youth representation in the 9 provincial legislatures.

One province has achieved gender parity, while 4 have nearly reached this mark. Provinces are however are a long way off when it comes to youth representation, with the highest being at 14% and 7 having single digits.

provincial


SAA Bail-out: Have your say!

South African Airways needs another R4 billion to stay afloat. According to Africa Check, from 1999 until 2017 the South African government has allocated R29.1 billion in bailouts to the struggling national airline. Government allocated another R5 billion in November 2018 and the carrier also secured R3.5 billion through private lenders at the beginning of 2019.

After the resignation of CEO Vuyani Jarana earlier this month, interim CEO, Zukisa Ramasia maintains that SAA is still on track to break even in 2021. Jarana, in his resignation letter cites funding uncertainty and bureaucracy among his reasons for leaving. He also said the turnaround strategy was being systemically undermined and that he was no longer able to assure the board and the public that the strategy is achievable. This creates some serious doubt whether SAA, an entity who has not turned a profit since 2011, will be able to achieve its 2021 goal.

Where to from here for SAA?

Loading...

South African Cabinet

President Ramaphosa appointed the National Executive (Ministers and Deputy Ministers) on Wednesday, 29 May 2019

The Executive under the Sixth Administration consists of:

kmn

This is compared to the Executive of the Fifth Administration:

kmn

kmn

kmn

GLOBAL STATISTICS

According to the NationMaster County Cabinet Comparison, South Africa is one of 45 nations in which Cabinet Members are appointed by the President and constituted without the approval of an elected body, or confirmation by an official(s) in government. This list of “streamlined” Cabinets include; Argentina, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, and Kenya...among others. That being said, there is no “best way” to form an Executive Cabinet. Other countries, including the United States, France, Germany, and Ireland, require oversight and approval from the legislature before Cabinet Members are appointed. This in turn, is linked to the electoral system a country makes use of.

See the complete list

Gender Parity

Globally, the gender parity of the South African Cabinet is extremely high. According to the Inter Parliamentary Union, South Africa ranked top 10 in countries with the highest percentage of women in Ministerial positions. See the complete report

what

The United States, mentioned earlier, has fifteen Cabinet Executives who each oversee an Executive Department. Although similar in structure, the gender parity of the United States pales in comparison to South Africa. According to the IPU, the US ranks 105 with only two female members (13%) holding Cabinet positions.

Age Breakdown

After the recent appointments, the average age of Ministers in the Cabinet of the Sixth Administration has decreased slightly to 58 years old compared to the previous administration. The majority of Ministers are middle-aged (50-54), however fewer are of senior age (65<). There are twice as many Ministers under 50 compared the previous administration. There is one youth-aged Minster, the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Mr Ronald Lamola (35 years old).

shit

Looking back on the South African Cabinet under the Fifth Administration, the average age of Ministers was 60 years. The majority of Executives were middle aged and/or senior aged (65<). A very small percentage of the Cabinet was under the age of 50, and none were considered youth (<35)

wtf

Cabinet Size

South Africa has one of the largest Cabinets in terms of members, relative to population size. In fact, although the US population is nearly six times greater than South Africa, the US has only 15 Cabinet Executives compared to the 28 Ministers that now make up the South African Cabinet. This discrepancy has somewhat improved with the Sixth Administration, as the Cabinet has been reduced by seven Ministers.

wtf

Cabinet sizes are also influenced by the distribution of powers between different levels of government in a particular country. In some countries, local government or regions have more autonomy and authority, and as a consequence the Cabinet is smaller.

Compiled by Mathew Schreiber


New Ramaphosa Cabinet: 2019

The President has announced his Executive which will serve the country’s Sixth Administration. Let’s take a look at some of the changes made.

The Cabinet is made up of the President, Deputy President and Ministers. The Deputy President is Mr David Mabuza. As per his 2018 State of the Nation Address, which referred to the need for reconfiguration of government, changes have been made to several ministerial portfolios. These include:

Amalgamation

  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: NOW: Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development
  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: NOW: Environment, Forestry and Fisheries
  • Telecommunications and Postal Services and Communications: NOW: Communications
  • Higher Education and Training and Science and Technology: NOW: Higher Education, Science and Technology
  • Human Settlements and Water and Sanitation: NOW: Human Settlements, Water and Sanitation
  • Mineral Resources and Energy
  • Sports and Recreation and Arts and Culture: NOW Sports, Arts and Culture
  • Economic Development is now combined with Trade and Industry

Other changes:

  • Labour portfolio is now known as Labour and Employment

Ministers:

A number of changes have been made to the Ministers serving in the Executive. New faces include

  • Ms Thoko Didiza: Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (she previously served as Minister of Agriculture and Land Affairs between 1999 and 2006. In the Fifth Parliament she served as House Chairperson and as Chairperson of the Ad Hoc Committee to amend section 25 of the Constitution.

  • Ms Barbara Creecy: Minister of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries served as MEC for Finance in the Gauteng province.

  • Mr Ronald Lamola: Minister of Justice and Correctional Services - history in the ANC Youth League and youngest member of the ANC National Executive Committee. Mr Lamola has a professional background in law.

  • Mr Jackson Mthembu: Minister in the Presidency – Mr Mthembbu served as the ANC’s Chief Whip in the National Assembly and MEC for Transport in Mpumalanga (1997 – 1999)

  • Mr Senzo Mchunu: Minister of Public Service and Administration – previously served as Premier of KZN (2013 – 2016).

  • Ms Patricia De Lille: Minister of Public Works and Infrastructure - previously Mayor of Cape Town from 2011 to 2018 and Western Cape Provincial Minister of Social Development from 2010 to 2011. She is the only member of the Cabinet not representing the ANC – she is the leader of the Good party.

  • Ms Khumbudzo Ntshavheni: Minister of Small Business Development- former chief operating officer (COO) for the State Information Technology Agency (SITA).

Ministers who have not made back into the Cabinet include:

  • Mr Senzeni Zokwana
  • Ms Bathabile Dlamini
  • Mr Derek Hanekom
  • Adv Michael Masutha
  • Dr Rob Davies
  • Dr Siyabonga Cwele
  • Ms Nomvula Mokonyane
  • Ms Mildred Oliphant
  • Ms Thokozile Xasa
  • Mr Gugile Nkwinti
  • Ms Susan Shabangu
  • Ms Dipuo Letsatsi-Duba
  • Ms Nomaindia Mfeketo

*The President also appointed 34 Deputy Ministers to his National Executive.

cabinet


Provincial Legislatures, Speakers & Premiers

Last week, Wednesday 22 May 2019, Members of the Provincial Legislatures (MPLs) were sworn in. Presided over by the Judge Presidents for each province, the nine provincial legislatures also elected the Premiers of the province and Speakers and Deputy Speakers of the legislatures. The Premiers were inaugurated on 27 May 2019. You can find the political party representation on each of the legislatures here.

Provincial Legislatures

The Constitution outlines in Chapter 6 that the legislative authority of a province is vested in its provincial legislature. A province’s permanent delegates to the NCOP may attend and may speak in the provincial legislatures and its committees, but may not vote – the NCOP is constitutionally mandated to ensure provincial interests are taken into account in the national sphere of government. Each province sends 10 delegates to permanently represent the province in the national legislature. The NCOP is thus composed of 90 delegates. A provincial delegation consists of 6 permanent delegates and 4 special delegates. The four special delegates consist of the Premier of the province and three other special delegates assigned from members of the provincial legislature. They are selected by each province from Members of the Provincial Legislature (MPLs) and are rotated depending on the subject matter being considered by the NCOP. The Premier of a province is the head of the province’s delegation but he or she can select any other delegate to lead the delegation in his or her absence.

In terms of powers, the provincial legislature may:

  • Consider, pass, amend or reject any Bill before the legislature

  • Initiate or prepare legislation, except Money Bills

  • Ensure all provincial organs of state in the province are accountable to it

  • Maintain oversight of the (1) exercise of provincial executive authority in the province, including implementation of legislation and (2) any provincial organ of state

The size of each provincial legislature depends on the population size of the province. According to the Constitution the minimum size of a Legislature is 30 members and the maximum size is 80 members. Members are elected from provincial lists on the basis of the number of votes received by a political party.

Premiers

The Constitution outlines in Chapter 6 that the executive authority of a province is vested in the Premier of that province. The Premier exercises the executive authority together with the other Members of the Executive Council (MECs) by (1) implementing all provincial legislation in the province and (2) implementing all national legislation within the functional areas listed in Schedule 4 or 5 except where the Constitution or an Act of Parliament provides otherwise (3) administering in the province, national legislation outside the functional areas listed in Schedules 4 and 5, the administration of which has been assigned to the provincial executive in terms of an Act of Parliament () developing and implementing provincial policy (5) coordinating the functions of the provincial administration and its departments (6) preparing and initiating provincial legislation (7) performing any other function assigned to the provincial executive in terms of the Constitution or an Act of Parliament

The Premier of a province has the power to:

  • Assent and sign Bills

  • Refer a Bill back to the provincial legislature for reconsideration of the Bill’s constitutionality

  • Refer a Bill to the Constitutional Court for a decision on the Bill’s constitutionality

  • Summoning the legislature to an extraordinary sitting to conduct special business

  • Appoint commissions of inquiry

  • Call a referendum in the province in accordance with national legislation

prem


First day of Parliament: a guide

Today Members of the National Assembly will be sworn in. These Members represent 14 political parties. Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng will take the Speaker’s seat at 10h30 and in groups of ten, alphabetically organised, he will preside over their swearing in. Each Member will swear or affirm faithfulness to the Republic and obedience to the Constitution.

The oath reads as follows: "I, [Name of MP], swear/solemnly affirm that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa and will obey, respect and uphold the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I solemnly promise to perform my functions as a member of the National Assembly to the best of my ability." In the case of an oath, "So help me God," will be said at the end.

Also attending the first sitting of the Fifth democratic Parliament will be diplomats and guests of the Presidency, guests of leaders and representatives of political parties in Parliament, and members of the public.

After MPs are sworn in, Chief Justice Mogoeng calls for the nomination of candidates for the position of Speaker of the NA. If more than one nomination is received for the position of Speaker of the National Assembly (NA), an election by secret ballot is held. Counting of the ballots is done in the presence of the Chief Justice. The results are then announced in the House.

Once the Speaker is duly elected, nominations are invited for the position of Deputy Speaker of the NA. The newly-elected Speaker presides over this election. The person who is nominated must indicate acceptance of the nomination by signing either the nomination form or any other form of written confirmation.

Throughout the process, the mace, which represents the Speaker’s authority, will remain upright in front of the National Assembly podium until the newly elected Speaker is escorted to the presiding officer’s chair by the sergeant-at-arms. When the mace is laid horizontally, it signals the official start to the new Parliament.

After an hour’s lunch break the House reconvenes (at 14h00) and the Chief Justice calls for the nomination of candidates for the position of President of the Republic of South Africa. Like the Speaker and Deputy Speaker process, if more than one nomination is made, an election by secret ballot is held. Counting of the ballots is done in the presence of the Chief Justice. The results are then announced in the House. The President, once elected, ceases to be a Member of the NA. The Constitution states that within five days the president-elect must assume office by swearing or affirming faithfulness to the Republic and obedience to the Constitution – this will be done on Saturday, 25 May 2019.

At this event, the President will take the oath or affirmation which reads: "In the presence of everyone assembled here, and in full realisation of the high calling I assume as President of the Republic of South Africa, I, [name of president-elect], swear/solemnly affirm that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa, and will obey, observe, uphold and maintain the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I solemnly and sincerely promise that I will always promote all that will advance the Republic, and oppose all that may harm it; protect and promote the rights of all South Africans; discharge my duties with all my strength and talents to the best of my knowledge and ability and true to the dictates of my conscience; do justice to all; and devote myself to the well-being of the Republic and all of its people." In the case of an oath, it will conclude with: "So help me God."

While parties are still deciding on the detailed seating order of their MPs, it is traditional that the right side of the House belongs to the ruling party while the left is held by the opposition

Provincial Legislatures

The nine provincial legislatures will also host their swearing-in processes on Wednesday 22 May. The Judge President of each province will preside over the activities which are largely as described above for the National Assembly – after the Members of the Provincial Legislatures are sworn in, the Speakers and Deputy Speakers will be elected. This will be followed by the election of the Premiers. The process will also include appointment of the permanent delegates to the National Council of Provinces (NCOP).

Premiers are expected to announce their executives shortly after they are sworn in.

NCOP

The swearing-in of delegates of the NCOP will be conducted on Thursday, 23 May 2019. The National Council of Provinces is composed of a single delegation of ten delegates from each province. Four of the ten are special delegates and six are permanent delegates. Political parties are entitled to delegates in proportion of their representation. If a person who is a member of the provincial legislature is appointed as a permanent delegate, that person ceases to be a member of the legislature.

The Chief Justice will preside over the swearing in of delegates of the NCOP and election of its Chairperson. The Chairperson will then preside over the election of the Deputy Chairperson, House Chairpersons and Chief Whip. The permanent delegates will be sworn in in groups of six

Representation of political parties in Parliament and the provincial legislatures

wtaf1


Elections: Results and Seats

With the final results announced officially by the IEC on Saturday, 11 May 2019, the ANC has won the sixth general election. The ANC received a little over 10 million votes. This was followed by the DA and EF. The ANC also retained its majority in all provinces except the Western Cape where it is the official opposition to the DA. The DA is the opposition once again in the Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, Free State and Gauteng, while the EFF is yet again the opposition in Limpopo and North West, while taking that role from the DA in Mpumalanga.

In the National Assembly, the African Transformation Movement (ATM), Good and Al Jama-ah are the new entrants while the African People’s Convention (APC) and Agang SA will not be returning

This election, a record number of 48 political parties contested the national ballot Parliament has 400 seats which are allocated proportionally to the parties who received the highest number of votes. In the Sixth Parliament, 14 parties will be represented

wtf

wtf

wtaf


What happens after the 2019 elections?

The Constitution spells out, in section 52, that after an election, the first sitting of the National Assembly must take place at a time and date determined by the Chief Justice but not more than 14 days after the election result has been declared

Wednesday, 22 May: things really kick off post-elections when the first sitting of the National Assembly takes place. At this sitting, the Chief Justice, or another designated Judge, will preside over the swearing-in of Members of Parliament. Groups of MPs are sworn in 10 at a time, ordered alphabetically. They will swear or affirm faithfulness to the Republic and obedience to the Constitution.

The Chief Justice will also preside over the election of the President, who will be selected from among the MPs – the President starts off as a Member of Parliament but immediately ceases to be once sworn in. The President must take up office within five days of being elected

Thereafter the Speaker will be elected by way of nomination. If more than one nomination is received for the position of Speaker, an election by secret ballot is held. Counting of the ballots is done in the presence of the Chief Justice. The results are then announced in the House.

Once the Speaker is duly elected, nominations are invited for the position of Deputy Speaker of the NA. The newly-elected Speaker presides over this election. Also attending the first sitting of the Fifth democratic Parliament will be diplomats and guests of the Presidency, guests of leaders and representatives of political parties in Parliament, and members of the public.

Throughout the process, the mace, which represents the Speaker’s authority, will remain upright in front of the National Assembly podium until the newly elected Speaker is escorted to the presiding officer’s chair by the sergeant-at-arms. When the mace is laid horizontally, it signals the official start to the new Parliament.

After an hour’s lunch break the House reconvenes (at 2pm) and the Chief Justice calls for the nomination of candidates for the position of President of the Republic of South Africa. Like the Speaker and Deputy Speaker process, if more than one nomination is made, an election by secret ballot is held. Counting of the ballots is done in the presence of the Chief Justice. The results are then announced in the House. The President, once elected, ceases to be a member of the NA.

The first sittings of the Provincial Legislatures are also provisionally scheduled for May 22. The Chief Justice will, in accordance with his constitutional prerogative, announce the appropriate date in due course. Additionally, the Chief Justice has also designated the Judges President of the divisions of the High Court to preside over the first sittings of the Provincial Legislatures. Provincial Premiers and Speakers will be elected at these sittings and the swearing in of Members of the Provincial Legislatures will also take place .

swearSource: GCIS

Thursday, 23 May: the first sitting of the NCOP will also be presided over by the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice will also preside over the election of the Chairperson of the National Council of Provinces, who is selected from the permanent delegates. The Chairperson will then preside over the election of the Deputy Chairperson, House Chairpersons and Chief Whip . The President will then appoint a Deputy President and Ministers to constitute his or her Cabinet – the Deputy President and Cabinet Members are selected from the Members of the National Assembly although no more than two Ministers can be appointed from outside the National Assembly

Saturday, 25 May: President Inauguration - in a departure from tradition, the event will take place at Loftus Versfeld Stadium. According to government, hosting the inauguration in a stadium, the largest in the City of Tshwane, will allow for greater public participation in this important national event. The theme of the inauguration ceremony is "Together celebrating 25 years of freedom: Renewal and Growth for a better South Africa." Aside from members of the public, it is expected that Heads of State and royalty from a number of countries will attend, as well as religious representatives, political parties, and representatives from regional, continental and international organisations and bodies such as the Southern African Development Community, the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN).

June 2019: Parliament also has two State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) during a general election year. People’s Assembly has it on good authority that the President will deliver this SONA between 4 and 14 June 2019. SONA marks the opening of the Sixth Parliament.

The sixth democratic Parliament will start to establish its committees in the weeks following the first sittings of the NA and NCOP